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City College names Class of 2020 Valedictorian & Salutatorian for first “Virtual Salute”

Amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, student success and recognition continue to be at the forefront of The City College of New York’s age-old mission. The 173-year-old institution announces the selection of Sabastian Hajtovic as its Class of 2020 Valedictorian. Isabella Joseph is Salutatorian.

Hajtovic is graduating summa cum laude with a 4.0 GPA from the CCNY-based CUNY School of Medicine’s (CSOM) Sophie Davis Biomedical Education Program. The Queens resident has earned a BS degree in biomedical science as he continues work toward his MD from CSOM in spring 2023.

A member of CCNY’s Macaulay Honors College, Joseph is also graduating summa cum laude with a 3.94 GPA. She will receive a bachelor of architecture degree from the Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture and is the first CCNY Salutatorian from the Spitzer School. She minored in anthropology.

Following are brief bios on CCNY’s Class of 2020 Valedictorian and Salutatorian:

Valedictorian Sabastian Hajtovic
Brought up in Rockaway Beach to a family of Turkish heritage, Hajtovic is described as a talented researcher and gifted student by mentors. His graduation honors include the Dean’s Award for Academic Excellence. He received the Rudin Research Fellowship in Dr. Linda Spatz’ lab for his work on molecular mimicry and cross-reactive antibodies in patients with lupus. He also received a Colin Powell Fellowship in Leadership and Public Service, under which he studied NYCHA housing conditions and asthma prevalence. He was also on the Dean’s List for his entire undergraduate years.

Hajtovic has shown exemplary leadership and excellence outside the classroom and lab, too. He’s served as treasurer, and is currently president-elect, of the CSOM chapter of Physicians for Human Rights, for which he’s coordinated an opioid crisis summit and Naloxone (opioid overdose prevention) training sessions. Hajtovic is also president of the Surgery Group at CSOM.

Other highlights of the Valedictorian’s accomplishments include serving as a BronxCare Hospital pediatrics department intern. There he designed a screening program for Social Determinants of Health.

As he works toward his medical degree, Hajtovic is interested in pursuing a surgical subspecialty. His interest in neuroscience peaked last summer during a six-week research fellowship at Istanbul University, working in a neuro-immunology lab and shadowing the neurosurgery department.

Salutatorian Isabella Joseph
Born of Indian immigrant parents in upstate New York, Joseph is a Macaulay Honors standout. She’s lauded in the Spitzer School of Architecture as “a model of the future student who pursues diverse skill sets to more effectively perform and address society’s myriad of issues.” She’s made the Dean’s list every year at City College.

Joseph helped revive the J. Max Bond Center for Urban Futures, the Spitzer School’s applied research center, and was recently part of a team that developed mapping resources for community boards 9 and 10 in response to COVID-19. She gained valuable experience as an architectural intern at the global firm Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF) Associates collaborating with its design team on the Changi Airport Terminal 5 project in Singapore.

Her other accolades include being named a WX Women in Real Estate Scholar of Merit this April, CUNY Chancellor’s Global Scholarship in summer 2018; and the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Greenbuild Scholarship in fall 2016.

Crossing disciplines, Joseph received a Climate Policy Fellowship from the Colin Powell School. Her work included co-writing a policy brief with teammates from economics and mechanical engineering on innovative financing strategy for resilience projects at NYCHA public housing developments. She is currently working on concurrent architectural and written thesis projects also dedicated to NYCHA housing in the architecture school and the Macaulay Honors College.

She aspires to become “a civically-engaged architect who not only designs and plans infrastructure projects, but also contributes my abilities, voice, and perspective to the most pressing issues of my time.”

About the City College of New York
Since 1847, The City College of New York has provided a high-quality and affordable education to generations of New Yorkers in a wide variety of disciplines. CCNY embraces its position at the forefront of social change. It is ranked #1 by the Harvard-based Opportunity Insights out of 369 selective public colleges in the United States on the overall mobility index. This measure reflects both access and outcomes, representing the likelihood that a student at CCNY can move up two or more income quintiles. In addition, the Center for World University Rankings places CCNY in the top 1.2% of universities worldwide in terms of academic excellence. Labor analytics firm Emsi puts at $1.9 billion CCNY’s annual economic impact on the regional economy (5 boroughs and 5 adjacent counties) and quantifies the “for dollar” return on investment to students, taxpayers and society. At City College, more than 16,000 students pursue undergraduate and graduate degrees in eight schools and divisions, driven by significant funded research, creativity and scholarship. CCNY is as diverse, dynamic and visionary as New York City itself. View CCNY Media Kit.


April 28, 2020 — A John Jay College of Criminal Justice project on cyber-terrorism is one of 13 selected by the Department of Homeland Security as part of the National Counterterrorism Innovation, Technology, and Education (NCITE) Center, a new DHS Center of Excellence. The project will be housed at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (see press release).

Goal “to prevent a potential ‘cyber-9/11.’”– Prof. Josh Freilich

John Jay College Criminal Justice Professor Joshua Freilich, along with Ph.D. candidate Emily Greene-Colozzi ’16, ‘22 and Master’s of Forensic Psychology student Karla Sosa ‘20 will all work on the project, which will study and aggregate ideologically motivated cyber-attacks.

“We are examining the social and developmental life histories of individuals committing ideologically motivated acts of cybercrime, or who harm virtual targets through the use of computer hacking and fraud, and targeted violence through online platforms,” said Professor Freilich was has been working on this over the past year with professors at Michigan State University. “Combined with research on the link between reporting of suspicious activity and pre-planning behavior, we hope to improve our cyber-listening abilities to prevent a potential ‘cyber-9/11.’”

“Working with the Department of Homeland Security, Professor Freilich and his colleagues will transfer their expertise researching violence in the United States to cyberspace, where they will search for patterns and evidence to help locate future cyber-terror threats,” said John Jay College President Karol V. Mason. “This is a great example of how John Jay’s criminal justice experts adapt and evolve their research to help solve new problems.”

This new NCITE project builds off an in-progress study funded by DHS through its center of excellence CAOE at Arizona State University. It will create a new, unique dataset – the Cyber-Extremist Crime Database (Cyber-ECDB) – which will track ideologically motivated cyberattacks against U.S. targets from 1998 to present.

Freilich, Greene-Colozzi, Sosa, and their MSU collaborators began compiling these data last year, using the same open source methods used to create both the U.S. Extremist Crime Database (ECDB), and the U.S. School Shooting Database (SSDB).

Consortium Members NCITE boasts a 63-person consortium across the U.S. and one international partner. In addition to John Jay, other experts are from Stanford University, King’s College London, University of Maine, Pennsylvania State University, George Washington University’s Program on Extremism, University of Central Florida, San Diego State University, Chapman University, Michigan State University, SUNY-Albany, University of Oklahoma, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Nebraska Medical Campus, the National Security Research Institute, and Research Triangle International.

About John Jay College of Criminal Justice  
An international leader in educating for justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York is a Hispanic Serving Institution and Minority Serving Institution offering a rich liberal arts and professional studies curriculum to 15,000 undergraduate and graduate students from more than 135 nations. John Jay is home to faculty and research centers at the forefront of advancing criminal and social justice reform. In teaching, scholarship and research, the College engages the theme of justice and explores fundamental human desires for fairness, equality and the rule of law. For more information, visit www.jjay.cuny.edu and follow us on Twitter @JohnJayCollege.

Elected Officials Address NYC College Students’ Pandemic Concerns

New York Elected Representatives and New York City college students discussed issues facing college students in the age of COVID-19.

Student representatives from Young Invincibles — an organization that addresses issues of health care, higher education and economic security for young adults — shared their experiences as New York City college students living through the pandemic.

Topics covered included access to mental health services, housing and food insecurity as well as emergency funds for struggling students.

New York State Assemblymembers Deborah Glick and Harvey Epstein fielded student questions, with both emphasizing the need for a federal bailout to allow for CUNY and SUNY systems to best support students. New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo has warned that budget cuts to higher education, K-12 and healthcare may come soon if the federal government does not provide additional funding.

Mental health resources proved to be a key concern for students. However, Glick explained that even with additional funding, counselor availability on college campuses may remain an issue.

“We have to get federal bailout dollars and if they arrive, [counselor availability] will still be a problem,” Glick said at the event. “The flip side is that this crisis has made people realize the inequities in our society and the fact that people like myself are not struggling the same as people in minority communities or as young people are struggling.”

Glick emphasized that while mental health resources on campuses may remain elusive, the state has set up a mental health hotline for which 10,000 mental health professionals have volunteered their time to take calls.

Around 78% of CUNY enrollment are minority students and before the pandemic around 48% of 22,000 CUNY students responded to a survey saying they faced food insecurity, making these students especially vulnerable to the financial and emotional tolls of COVID-19.

While mental health resources were a hot-button topic, City College of New York senior Marcia Collier, who attended the town hall, said that in her experience, housing insecurity has been the biggest concern that students face. Before the pandemic 14% of CUNY undergraduate students were experiencing homelessness, according to a media advisory.

“I know a few students who are borderline homeless, they’re moving from place to place and there is no assistance at all with help,” Collier told WSN. “The only option you have is to stay in the dorms, which is only available for a certain amount of individuals and it’s extremely expensive.”

In addition to housing insecurity and limited access to mental health services, Hunter College senior Tanisha Williams raised concerns regarding access to food pantries for college students dealing with food insecurity in New York City.

“As campuses close access to food for many students is harder than ever especially as food pantries are closed or offer extremely limited hours,” Williams said before asking representatives what they can do to open up access to food pantries for college students. “Meanwhile, the state’s investment in food pantries has not increased since 2018 and very few college students enroll in food stamps.”

In April, the city approved $25 million to be allocated toward emergency food providers.

Representatives Glick and Epstein agreed that the Grab-and-Go programs implemented by the city should have been based on college campuses. Glick also raised that food pantries should be open to all university students, regardless of which school they attend. This measure would have been especially useful for NYU students facing food insecurity, as the university does not have a food pantry.

“Students who have a school ID should be able to go to any campus,” Glick said. “The city has not put any of the Grab-and-Go on campuses which would have been helpful in those neighborhoods where the campuses are and I don’t quite understand why they didn’t do that.”

Paola Cruz, a Columbia University student, added to the conversation that university emergency funds have also proven difficult to access for students who have applied. She cited a friend whose application was denied.

“For some colleges the emergency funds have already existed, but the demand is very high as students and families lose work while potentially taking on new expenses like internet access or computers to make sure they can keep up with classes,” Cruz said at the event. “We also know that the federal government is sending money to New York’s colleges for emergency aid as a part of the CARES act. These emergency grants funded from the CARES act must address urgent needs students may be facing from housing to childcare to accessing food.”

However, Senator Robert Jackson emphasized that private universities with large endowments, like Columbia University or NYU, should be able to provide for students in need.

“As far as endowment, Columbia University has billions of dollars in endowment so they should be able to set aside X amount of dollars when it comes to cash for food, for housing,” Jackson said during the session. “Columbia — I don’t know if they’re doing that. They have a huge endowment to do that, whereas the City College comparatively does not.”

While discussion centered around meeting fundamental health and safety needs, Williams also brought up concerns that money awarded to students through the New York State Tuition Assistance Program may be put in jeopardy by budget cuts or suffering GPAs due to the financial and emotional strains brought by COVID-19. Assemblymember Epstein assured students that they would work not only to protect TAP awards, but also to extend funding.

“If you can’t get your four years, your eight credits from the TAP, we need to ensure that students have additional time and additional semester of TAP not losing that opportunity,” Epstein said.

But the question of budget cuts still hangs heavy in the minds of CUNY college administrators and students. Young Invincibles advertised a petition at the end of the call, demanding that Governor Cuomo not follow through on plans to slash education budgets in the coming months if a federal bailout does not appear.



Without in-person classes, many students have essentially gone missing, teachers say

GREENVILLE, S.C – Most of Shasta Looper’s fourth-grade class has been in regular contact with the teacher, but about 15% of her students haven’t been turning in assignments.

And there’s one student she hasn’t heard from since the Blythe Academy in Greenville, South Carolina, closed in March to limit the spread of the coronavirus.

“That one student is still at the forefront of my mind,” Looper said. “That’s been really difficult, I think, for a lot of teachers. For those kids that you can’t reach, you have no idea what they’re experiencing.”

In a survey of about 4,000 South Carolina teachers on April 1, only 17% said they had contacted all of their students. About 21% of the teachers said they had been in contact with less than half of the students in their classes.

Based on that survey, state Superintendent Molly Spearman told a panel of leaders that she estimates between 4% and 5% of students — or about 31,000 to 39,000 — have been unaccounted for since public schools closed.

Even the students who have made contact with teachers aren’t all keeping up with their work, leaving educators to wonder what knowledge students will have retained if and when they return to classrooms in the fall.


News Source: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/education/2020/05/04/coronavirus-thousands-students-sc-not-doing-their-school-work/3078809001/

Simple Ways to Recognize Danger And Stay Safe Online

Nowadays the internet is practically a necessity.  It’s also a lot of fun with some great ways to stay in touch with friends.  However, it also has dangers lurking in every corner.  This means, as much fun as it can be online, it’s important to take basic precautions in order to stay safe.


For example, that really nice person you are chatting with that you ‘met’ on social media may not be at all who they claim.


People can easily claim to be someone different, from their gender to their age according to the security experts at ProPrivacy.  Many adults will pretend to be teenagers in order to convince young people, especially girls into meeting them out in the real world.  This can obviously be very dangerous and some of these incidents have ended up in court in the United Kingdom.


Bullying UK, a charity organization founded to help fight bullying, has seen many instances where young girls are talked into dangerous situations but adults.  This process is something known as ‘grooming.’  It’s practically a form of brainwashing.


Simple Internet Safety Tips You Need To Follow


  1. Never share your real name.


  1. Never give out personal information such as where you go to school, your phone number or your home address.


  1. If you are going to meet someone offline, do so in a very public place and have an adult, such as a parent with you. If this other person is who they say they are they will not have a problem with this at all.


  1. If someone makes you feel uncomfortable online, be sure and let a trusted adult in your life know about it.


Important Danger Signs To Watch Out For


  1. The person you are chatting with keep asking for your address or phone number.


2.They email you inappropriate pictures that make you uncomfortable (be sure and tell an adult you trust).


  1. This person asks you to keep your conversations secret or tells you personal information that they ask you not to share with anyone.


  1. The person wants you to email them pictures that make you feel uncomfortable or use a webcam in an inappropriate way.


  1. They ask you to meet them in the real world an tell you not to tell anyone else about the meeting.


If any of these things happen, it’s really important that you tell an adult you trust.  It’s most likely that this person is lying to you about who they are and you could end up in a bad or dangerous situation if you keep this information to yourself.

The Doe on Fake News and How to Spot it

The last few years have been very newsworthy with events like Brexit, the unprecedented American election, earthquakes and much more. There’s always a story to catch your attention every day.


However, besides the factual and properly researched news reports, there is always fake news. Most of these stories are sinister and often appear accurate while they are far from the truth.


Milan Kordestani was of the opinion something had to change and that’s why he created “The Doe” – an anti-fake news. The site publishes fully anonymous and verified news that provides people perspectives on things they may not already read – challenging them. The opposite of fake news which often is created to speak to prejudices in the worst possible manner.


Fake news has been circulating for the longest time, quite parallel to real news. However, it’s become quite popular because of how people consume information. A recent research study identified that people under 50 years of age get their news online. People under 30 years find online news more interesting than TV news.


If you have been getting your news online, there is a high likelihood that you have come across a lot of fake news. It’s very eye-catching and attention-grabbing so you couldn’t have missed it. Milan from The Doe runs us through what fake news looks like.


Why Does Fake News Become Viral?


Many people share the false stories without a second thought. That’s because the attention-grabbing headlines on social media make it easier for people to share content than read or evaluate it. As a result, there are so many sound bites without any substance.


Another reason is confirmation bias. It means that people readily accept information that confirms their beliefs and dismiss any information to the contrary of their beliefs immediately. Thedoe provides a platform for people to express their opinion without bias and without judgement. A lot of misinformation leads to ignorance. In the long run, there are serious consequences.


There are a lot of stories where people act on these false stories leading to serious consequences. That’s because they don’t know whether it’s fake or not. Regardless of the information you come across, you need to get the facts straight before you act on it.


The last 2 years have been filled with a lot of false stories that have reached mainstream media. The next 2 years are bound to follow suit. If you need to defend yourself, you have to get the facts straight and avoid being duped. As an avid reader, you need to know how to keep track of good and bad news. Here’s what you need to know.


4 Tips For Evaluating News


  1. Vet The Publisher’s Credibility


Check whether the publishing site meets academic citation standards. A site might be very popular online but it might not have accurate content.


Also, you need to check the domain name. Stay away from top-level domain names like ‘com.co’. A domain name like abcnews might be credible but if it’s followed by ‘com.co’, stay away from it. The second site is illegitimate and designed to look like the original.


What’s the point of view of the publication? Go to the ‘about us’ section of the website to get more information about the leadership, publisher and the mission statement. Make sure you have not come across famous sites for satirical news such as The Onion.


Finally, you need to know the author. Find out if the person has published anything else. You need to stay away from news where the byline, naming the author, is a celebrity writing for a less popular site or if the contact information is a g-mail address.


  1. Check The Quality And Timeliness


Have you noticed any spelling errors? Are they using uppercase letters? Is there dramatic punctuation? If yes, you need to stay away from news coming from such sites. Reputable news sources have top-notch grammatical and proofreading standards.


Next, you need to ascertain whether the story is recent or has been recycled. Check the stories to make sure they are not old ones being taken out of context.


  1. Check The Citations And The Sources


How did you come across the article? Did it show up on your social media feed? Was it promoted by a website renowned for clickbait? If yes, you need to be cautious about what you are reading. It doesn’t matter if a friend shared it.


Check the quotations and what they say. If it’s a complex issue but there are not quotes, there is something wrong. The best news relies on proper fact gathering. If there is no research, the information isn’t based on facts.


Check whether the information is available on other sites. If not, there are still doubts on whether the information is valid. Check library databases to confirm credibility of the information.


Also, you need to be able to do reverse searches for images and sources. That way, you can confirm that the information is applied accurately without alterations based on bias. With the presence of Photoshop, it’s easy to believe any image online.


  1. Ask The Pros


Have you gone through any fact-checking website? There are some great ones like Snopes.com, FactCheck.org, PolitiFact.com or International Fact-checking Network. Go through these sites and be able to identify fake news immediately.


Don’t believe anything you come across online without following these 4 tips!

Stock Trading Fundamental Analysis


Fundamental Analysis is a criterion used in measuring the intrinsic value of a particular security by analyzing the related economic and financial parameters. It, therefore, entails studying all factors that can affect the value of a particular security.

The factors considered are either macroeconomic or microeconomic aspects. Examples of macroeconomic factors are the conditions of the particular sector or the state of the economy. Microeconomic factors can be aspects such as the effectiveness of the firm’s management strategy.

At the end of the day, all that is required is to arrive at a figure with which an investor can make a comparison with the current price of security thus gauge whether that security is undervalued or overvalued.

Concept of Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is considered to be different from technical analysis; technical analysis concentrates on the trend of the prices through the analysis of historical data of the market i.e. market volume and security price. Fundamental analysis, however, attempts to determine whether the said security is appropriately valued within the broader market sector.

The strategy employed in the fundamental analysis involves inspecting the security price from an external perspective and delve deeper into the internal parameters to identify the securities that are valued incorrectly by the market. In essence, the analysts first study the state of the economy concerning the market and then later analyze the strength of the particular sector and finally concentrate on the firm’s performance. This chronological strategy helps to arrive at a just valuation of the stock.

Resources used in Fundamental Analysis

The analysis uses public data in its evaluation of any security such as a stock or bond. In the case of a bond, the data used are economic factors like interest rates after which the overall state of the economy is evaluated and lastly the bond issuer information is studied i.e. any potential change in the credit rating of the issuer.

Concerning stock the data used is the revenues and earnings, return on equity of the shareholders, future growth, profit margin and any other relevant data that will help ascertain the underlying value of the firm and the potential for its future growth

Investing using fundamental Analysis

Suppose the intrinsic value of the security is higher than the current market price then the stock is determined to be undervalued; therefore a buy recommendation is advised on such a scenario. If the reverse is observed, the intrinsic value is lower than the current market price, then the stock is overvalued and therefore a sell recommendation is advised.

Using these information investors have to options in play; either to invest long or go short. The criteria of going long involve purchasing with the prediction that the stock price will rise; this strategy is done on companies that are deemed strong. The go short mechanism involves selling stock shares that are deemed to fall in price shortly and thus repurchase the shares at a lower price; this strategy is usually conducted on firms that are deemed weak.

Categories of Fundamental Analysis factors 

The different factors used in fundamental analysis can be categorized into two major groups, quantitative and qualitative factors.

Quantitative Factors

These are measurable characteristics of a business; they are capable of being expressed numerically as figures. The important source of quantitative data is the financial statements i.e. revenue, assets, profits and other documents which detail the financial portfolio of the company.

Use of financial statements can disclose information of the company about its financial prowess to make decisions on the investment to be made. The three critical financial statements to be considered are income statements, cash flow statements, and balance sheets. To learn more, you may visit Day Trading Academy provided by Marcello Arrambide.

1. The balance Sheet

This document is used to keep a record of the assets, liabilities, and equity of a firm at a particular period. It is named as so due to the balance it has on the company’s financial structure i.e. total assets equals the liabilities of the company with the equity of the shareholders.

Assets entail all the resources owned or controlled by a business at a given period. Examples of assets are machinery, buildings, inventory, and cash. Liabilities entail the debt, that ought to be paid, and equity represents the total sum that the business owners have contributed to the business. These two concepts represent the total value of financing that the company has used to acquire its assets.

2. The Income Statement

This document measures the firm’s performance at a specific period. It is usually reported quarterly or annual basis. It conveys information about the firm’s revenues, expenses, and profits that have been accrued due to the operations conducted for that period.

3. Statements of Cash flows

This document entails a record of the cash inflows and outflows of a firm at a given period. It focuses on the following:

  •       Cash from Investing (CFI)

Entails the cash used for asset investments and proceeds from the sale of other resources such as machinery or long-term assets.

  •       Cash from Financing (CFF)

Entails cash paid or received from the borrowing or issuance of funds.

  •       Operating Cash flow (OCF)

Entails cash generated daily.

Qualitative Factors

Are less tangible factors that relate to the quality as opposed to the size of a firm. Examples can be the character of the key executives of the firm, brand recognition, patents or proprietary technology.

The key qualitative factors are:

  •       The Business Model

Entails the purpose of the business and what service will it provide to its consumers.

  •       Competitive Advantage

Involves the strategy used by the firm to get ahead of the competition and enjoy growth and profit.

  •       Management

Involves the manner and level of management in the firm and their role in the business’ goals.

  •       Corporate Governance

Entails the policies put in place within a firm giving the relationships and duties among management, directors, and stakeholders.



Among the key things to take note is that Fundamental analysis is that it is mostly applied in stocks; it is, however, a general criterion used to evaluate any security i.e. a bond or a derivative. Another point is that fundamental analysis entails analyzing the broad economy to the fine details of the firm.

This analysis is a way of determining the validity of stock in the market; they search for stocks that are trading at prices higher or lower than the real value, therefore, giving buy recommendation or sell recommendation as per the particular scenario analyzed.


What is Forex Trading

Candlestick Analysis in Forex Trading



A Candlestick is a type of price chart in the forex trade that is used to display the changing prices of a security of a particular period; the price could be high or low or whether the price is open or closed. This price chart assists investors in determining the best period to enter or exit trades.

Candlestick charts, therefore, are used to pack data for numerous time frames into a single price bar. Accomplishing this yields a prediction of the direction taken by the price of the security, therefore, giving the trader a chance to make a sound decision that will yield profit. Understanding the concept of candlesticks charts is a good method of understanding the general analysis of the forex trade market.

Basics of a Candlestick

The candlestick can be structured to a rectangular shape with two lines protruding from its northern and southern direction. The rectangle which is the wide part of the candlestick is commonly referred to as the real body. The real body is used to inform the trader whether the closing price at the end of the trading period was higher or lower than that of the opening price.

Black or red shading on the body indicates that the stock closed lower than the opening price while a white or green color indicates an increase in security price as compared to the opening price.

The candlestick’s lines are referred to as shades show the highs and lows of the security price for the period stated in comparison to the opening and closing price of that security.

Candlestick patterns

There are three main patterns to be considered when using candlestick charts to analyze the foreign market. These patterns assist in the analysis of the market’s price action and make predictions about the immediate directional changes of the security price.

A point to note is that there are two expected pattern outcomes of the price action; either reversal or a continuation. A candlestick reversal pattern is used to predict a change in the price direction while a continuation pattern is used to predict an extension from the current path of the security price.

1.     Single Candlestick pattern

This pattern is formed using one candlestick thus the trading pattern is generated based on the trading action of a single day. Therefore deeper analysis is utilized on the length of the candle as the length signifies the trading day.

The different forms of single candlestick patterns are:

·        Doji Patterns

This formation is easily identified as it is observed whenever the closing price of a security is at the same point as the opening price. The Doji is thus related to a dash with a wick or just a dash in case there is no price change.

The Doji has a reversal outcome when it is formed; the reason behind this is that during a bullish or bearish market, the outcome of the Doji reveals that the bull market is losing their influence while the bear market is gaining its power. A bull market entails the price of the security rising while a bear market is a falling price trend.

·        Spinning Tops

This candle is characterized by incorporating a small body and a longer upper and lower wick; the wicks, however, are of the same size. The shape indicates that both buyers and sellers are in stiff competition with neither party dominating the other.

However, in a market structure, the candle can be observed on either a downtrend or rising price change. In case of a falling price trend, the sellers are losing the fight while in an upward trend the sellers are gaining dominance over the buyers.

·        Marubozu Pattern

This candlestick is characterized by having a body with no trace of the wick; this implies that it is a continuation pattern trend. Suppose the candle is a bull market trend then it means the uptrend is high enough so that the price will continue increasing and never reach the opening of the bar.

·        Hammer and Hanging Man Pattern

Both patterns are characterized by having small bodies with a small upper wick but a long lower wick. They are both classified under the reversal pattern. The only distinct difference between the two patterns is that the hammer pattern describes the reversal nature of the bear market trend while the hanging man describes that of the bull market trend.

·        Inverted Hammer and Shooting Star

Both patterns are the inverse of the hammer and hanging man patterns. They have small bodies with a small lower wick but a long upper wick. They are also classified under the reversal pattern where the inverted hammer describes the bear market trend while the shooting star represents the end of a bull market trend.

2.     Double Candlestick Patterns

As the name suggests this pattern is generated using a pair of candlesticks. There are two distinct types namely Bullish and bearing Engulfing patterns and the tweezer tops and bottoms patterns.

·        Bullish and Bearing Engulfing patterns

The Bullish engulfing pattern is a double bar type of candlestick formation in which a bigger bull candle is formed after a bear candle is observed.

The Bearish engulfing pattern is also a double bar candlestick formation that consists of a bull market candle being observed to be followed by a bigger bearish candle. They are characterized as reversal patterns trends.

In both patterns, the latter candle is analyzed to be engulfing the body of the former. Using this analysis it implies that a bullish engulfing pattern reveals a reversal of a bear market trend while a bearish engulfing pattern relates to the reversal of a bull market trend.

·        Tweezer Tops and Bottoms Patterns

The Tweezer tops entail a bullish candle that is followed by a bear candle; both candles are characterized by having small bodies and no lower wick. The two candles have similar parameters.

The tweezer Bottoms, however, entail a bearish candle that is followed by a bull candle. The two candles are characterized by having small bodies but no upper wick.

Both patterns are classified as reversal pattern trends; the main difference of the two is that Tweezer Tops signify a reversal of a bull market trend to a bear market trend while tweezer bottoms are observed at the end and warn of a bullish reversal.

3.     Triple candlestick patterns

·        Morning Star and Evening Star

The Morning star entails a bear candle that is followed by a small bear or bull candlestick which is lastly followed by a bull candlestick that is larger than half the first candlestick.

The Evening Star Candle pattern starts with a bullish candle that is followed by a small bear or bull candlestick and lastly followed by bear candlestick that is larger than half the first candlestick.

Both of these patterns have reversal pattern trends; the morning star indicates the end of a bear market trend while the evening star implies the end of a bullish trend.

·        Three Soldiers Candlestick patterns

This pattern is characterized as a reversal trend; it could either be a bull or bear trend.

The Three Bull Soldier consists of three bull candlesticks arranged in a row. It is characterized by ending a bear trend and initiating a new bull trend. The three candles are:

  • A smaller Bull candle.
  • A big bull candle that closes near its highest point.
  • A bigger bull candle that has a small wick.

The three bear soldier will also have three bear candlesticks arranged in a row. It is characterized by ending a bull trend and initiating a new bear trend. The three candles are:

  • A smaller Bear candle.
  • A big bear candle that closes near its lowest point.
  • A bigger bear candle that has a small wick.


To learn more deeply on how to read the candlesticks pattern in forex trading, you may learn from Traders Academy Club founded by Vladimir Ribakov the forex grand master. There are many advanced knowledge you can get inside the TAC academy, and they are perfect for bot newbies and experienced traders.



Candlesticks are intricate aspects that are used to analyze market patterns of the forex trade. They will display both high and low as well as the opening and closing prices of a security. The opening and closing prices are reflected on the body while the highest and lowest price is indicated on the wicks.

The trader ought to know the different pattern types namely single, double and triple candlestick patterns with an in-depth analysis of their characteristics. All these patterns are either classified to continuation or reversal patterns; reversal patterns are the most common candle patterns that are used.

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